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J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2011 Jan-Feb;26(1):9-20.

Measurement of negative thinking in patients with heart failure: a critical review and analysis.

Author information

1
University of Kentucky College of Nursing, 760 Rose St, Lexington, KY 40536-0232, USA. rdekker@uky.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Depression is a significant clinical problem among patients with heart failure (HF). Cognitive therapy is a potential treatment for symptoms of depression in patients with HF. Cognitive therapy focuses on the reduction of negative thinking, a modifiable risk factor for depressive symptoms; however, researchers have not identified the best instrument for measuring negative thinking in patients with HF.

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this paper is to review the state of the science in the measurement of negative thinking in order to provide direction for the measurement of negative thinking in patients with HF.

FINDINGS:

Three of the most widely used instruments for negative thinking were selected for review. The Crandell Cognitions Inventory, Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, and Cognitive Checklist- Depression all have strong evidence for validity and reliability. The Crandell Cognitions Inventory (CCI) has the best potential for measuring negative thinking in patients with HF. The CCI has the advantages of being developed with a clinical population and captures a wide range of negative thinking content. However, the CCI is lengthy (45 items) and needs to undergo rigorous psychometric testing among patients with HF before it can be recommended for use.

CONCLUSIONS:

Future studies are needed to develop a shortened version of the CCI for use in clinical research and to test the CCI's reliability and validity for measuring negative thinking in patients with HF.

PMID:
21423878
PMCID:
PMC3058570
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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