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Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2011 Mar;62(1):65-76. doi: 10.2478/10004-1254-62-2011-2075.

Cadmium toxicity revisited: focus on oxidative stress induction and interactions with zinc and magnesium.

Author information

1
Department of Toxicology "Akademik Danilo Soldatović", Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Serbia. vevodi@pharmacy.bg.ac.rs

Abstract

Discovered in late 1817, cadmium is currently one of the most important occupational and environmental pollutants. It is associated with renal, neurological, skeletal and other toxic effects, including reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. There is still much to find out about its mechanisms of action, biomarkers of critical effects, and ways to reduce health risks. At present, there is no clinically efficient agent to treat cadmium poisoning due to predominantly intracellular location of cadmium ions. This article gives a brief review of cadmium-induced oxidative stress and its interactions with essential elements zinc and magnesium as relevant mechanisms of cadmium toxicity. It draws on available literature data and our own results, which indicate that dietary supplementation of either essential element has beneficial effect under condition of cadmium exposure. We have also tackled the reasons why magnesium addition prevails over zinc and discussed the protective role of magnesium during cadmium exposure. These findings could help to solve the problem of prophylaxis and therapy of increased cadmium body burden.

PMID:
21421535
DOI:
10.2478/10004-1254-62-2011-2075
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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