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Hum Pathol. 2011 May;42(5):609-17. doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2010.12.005. Epub 2011 Mar 21.

Cytogenetic and molecular aberrations in endometrial stromal tumors.

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Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

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  • Hum Pathol. 2011 Oct;42(10):1580.


Endometrial stromal tumors (ESTs) are rare uterine mesenchymal tumors, comprising <10% of all uterine mesenchymal neoplasms. The latest World Health Organization classification divides endometrial stromal tumors into 3 categories based on morphologic features: endometrial stromal nodule (ESN), low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma. Specific cytogenetic aberrations and molecular genetic alterations have recently been identified in endometrial stromal tumors, providing insights into their molecular biology, potential diagnostic markers, and possible therapeutic targets. Currently, recurrent chromosomal rearrangements resulting in gene fusion play a substantive role in the pathogenesis of endometrial stromal nodules, endometrial stromal sarcomas, and a small subset of undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas. Loss of heterozygosity of tumor suppressor genes and deregulation of the Wnt signaling pathway have also been implicated in EST tumorigenesis. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the molecular pathology of endometrial stromal tumors.

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