Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Nanomedicine. 2011 Dec;7(6):710-29. doi: 10.1016/j.nano.2011.02.013. Epub 2011 Mar 17.

Upconversion nanoparticles: synthesis, surface modification and biological applications.

Author information

1
College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang, People's Republic of China.

Abstract

New generation fluorophores, also termed upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), have the ability to convert near infrared radiations with lower energy into visible radiations with higher energy via a nonlinear optical process. Recently, these UCNPs have evolved as alternative fluorescent labels to traditional fluorophores, showing great potential for imaging and biodetection assays in both in vitro and in vivo applications. UCNPs exhibit unique luminescent properties, including high penetration depth into tissues, low background signals, large Stokes shifts, sharp emission bands, and high resistance to photobleaching, making UCNPs an attractive alternative source for overcoming current limitations in traditional fluorescent probes. In this article, we discuss the recent progress in the synthesis and surface modification of rare-earth doped UCNPs with a specific focus on their biological applications.

FROM THE CLINICAL EDITOR:

Upconversion nanoparticles - a new generation of fluorophores - convert near infrared radiations into visible radiations via a nonlinear optical process. These UCNPs have evolved as alternative fluorescent labels with great potential for imaging and biodetection assays in both in vitro and in vivo applications.

PMID:
21419877
PMCID:
PMC3166393
DOI:
10.1016/j.nano.2011.02.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center