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Nat Rev Neurosci. 2011 Apr;12(4):204-16. doi: 10.1038/nrn2969.

From glutamate co-release to vesicular synergy: vesicular glutamate transporters.

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Institut National de Santé et de Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U952, Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7224, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 06, Pathophysiology of Central Nervous System Disorders, 9 quai Saint Bernard, 75005 Paris, France.

Erratum in

  • Nat Rev Neurosci. 2011 Jul;12(7):425.


Recent data indicate that 'classical' neurotransmitters can also act as co-transmitters. This notion has been strengthened by the demonstration that three vesicular glutamate transporters (vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), VGLUT2 and VGLUT3) are present in central monoamine, acetylcholine and GABA neurons, as well as in primarily glutamatergic neurons. Thus, intriguing questions are raised about the morphological and functional organization of neuronal systems endowed with such a dual signalling capacity. In addition to glutamate co-release, vesicular synergy - a process leading to enhanced packaging of the 'primary' transmitter - is increasingly recognized as a major property of the glutamatergic co-phenotype. The behavioural relevance of this co-phenotype is presently the focus of considerable interest.

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