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Clin Cancer Res. 2011 May 1;17(9):2997-3004. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-3425. Epub 2011 Mar 17.

Phase 1 study of the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of TH-302, a hypoxia-activated prodrug, in patients with advanced solid malignancies.

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Virginia G Piper Cancer Center at Scottsdale Healthcare/TGen, Scottsdale, Arizona 85238, USA.



The objectives of this phase 1, first-in-human study were to determine the dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary activity of the hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 in patients with advanced solid tumors.


TH-302 was administered intravenously over 30 to 60 minutes in two regimens: three times weekly dosing followed by 1 week off (arm A) and every 3-week dosing (arm B).


Fifty-seven patients enrolled (arm A: N = 37 and arm B: N = 20). The TH-302 dose was escalated from 7.5 to 670 mg/m(2) in arm A and from 670 to 940 mg/m(2) in arm B. The most common adverse events were nausea, skin rash, fatigue, and vomiting. Hematologic toxicity was mild and limited. Grade 3 skin and mucosal toxicities were dose limiting at 670 mg/m(2) in arm A; the MTD was 575 mg/m(2). In arm B, grade 3 fatigue and grade 3 vaginitis/proctitis were dose limiting at 940 mg/m(2); the MTD was 670 mg/m(2). Plasma concentrations of TH-302 and the active metabolite Br-IPM (brominated version of isophosphoramide mustard) increased proportionally with dose. Two partial responses were noted in patients with metastatic small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and melanoma in arm A at 480 and 670 mg/m(2). Stable disease was observed in arms A and B in 18 and 9 patients, respectively.


The MTD of TH-302 was 575 mg/m(2) weekly and 670 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks. Skin and mucosal toxicities were DLTs. On the basis of responses in metastatic melanoma and SCLC, further investigations in these indications were initiated.

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