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Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2011 Apr;32(2):142-50. doi: 10.1053/j.sult.2010.10.010.

Ultrasound of pediatric musculoskeletal disease: from head to toe.

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Department of Radiology, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.


Ultrasound (US) can be used to evaluate a variety of musculoskeletal pathologies related to developmental anomalies, most commonly developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), infection, inflammation, and trauma. US has unique advantages in evaluation of the immature bone in children. It is possible to directly visualize the cartilaginous epiphyses that are not demonstrated on radiographs, joints, and soft tissues. US is safe and does not involve ionizing radiation or the need for sedation. US also has the advantage of real-time imaging, which can be useful in evaluation of subluxation or clicking syndromes.

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