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Nano Lett. 2011 Apr 13;11(4):1810-3. doi: 10.1021/nl200500s. Epub 2011 Mar 17.

Batteries for efficient energy extraction from a water salinity difference.

Author information

1
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States.

Abstract

The salinity difference between seawater and river water is a renewable source of enormous entropic energy, but extracting it efficiently as a form of useful energy remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a device called "mixing entropy battery", which can extract and store it as useful electrochemical energy. The battery, containing a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod electrode, was shown to extract energy from real seawater and river water and can be applied to a variety of salt waters. We demonstrated energy extraction efficiencies of up to 74%. Considering the flow rate of river water into oceans as the limiting factor, the renewable energy production could potentially reach 2 TW, or ∼13% of the current world energy consumption. The mixing entropy battery is simple to fabricate and could contribute significantly to renewable energy in the future.

PMID:
21413685
DOI:
10.1021/nl200500s
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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