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Pest Manag Sci. 2011 Aug;67(8):932-41. doi: 10.1002/ps.2133. Epub 2011 Mar 16.

Allelic variation of the ACCase gene and response to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in pinoxaden-resistant Lolium spp.

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Istituto di Biologia Agroambientale e Forestale-CNR, Agripolis, Legnaro (PD), Italy.



The repeated use of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) inhibiting herbicides to control grass weeds has selected for resistance in Lolium spp. populations in Italy. The efficacy of pinoxaden, a recently marketed phenylpyrazoline herbicide, is of concern where resistance to ACCase inhibitors has already been ascertained. ACCase mutations associated with pinoxaden resistance were investigated, and the cross-resistance pattern to clodinafop, haloxyfop, sethoxydim, clethodim and pinoxaden was established on homo/heterozygous plants for four mutant ACCase alleles.


Seven different mutant ACCase alleles (1781-Leu, 1999-Leu, 2041-Asn, 2041-Val, 2078-Gly, 2088-Arg and 2096-Ala) and 13 combinations with two types of mutation were detected in the pinoxaden-resistant plants. The 1781-Leu allele appears to confer a dominant resistance to pinoxaden, clodinafop, haloxyfop, sethoxydim and clethodim at 60 g AI ha(-1) . The 2041-Asn and 2041-Val alleles are associated with dominant or partially dominant resistance to FOPs, no substantial resistance to DIMs and a moderate resistance to pinoxaden. The 2088-Arg allele endows a partially dominant resistance to clodinafop, sethoxydim and most likely to pinoxaden. In addition, non-target-site resistance mechanisms seem to be involved in pinoxaden resistance.


Almost all the ACCase mutations selected in the field by other ACCase inhibitors are likely to confer resistance to pinoxaden. Although pinoxaden is sometimes able to control FOP-resistant populations, it should not be considered as a sustainable ACCase resistance management tool. The presence of non-ACCase-based resistance mechanisms that could confer resistance to herbicides with different modes of action further complicates the resistance management strategies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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