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Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011 Apr;30(4):331-5. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181fb6f82.

Etiology of diarrhea in young children and patterns of antibiotic resistance in Cambodia.

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National Pediatric Hospital, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.



Little is known about diarrhea etiology and antibiotic resistance in developing countries where diarrhea is a major public health problem.


To describe diarrhea etiology and antibiotic resistance patterns in Cambodia, 600 children aged 3 months to 5 years with acute diarrhea (cases) and 578 children without diarrhea (controls) were enrolled from a hospital in Phnom Penh. Stool samples were collected, and pathogens and antibiotic resistance patterns were described.


The most frequently isolated pathogens in these cases were enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (20%) and rotavirus (26%). Enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteroaggregative E. coli, Shigella, Aeromonas, rotavirus, and adenovirus were statistically significantly associated with diarrhea. Among cases, vomiting was associated with viral infections, whereas bloody stool was associated with Shigella. Enterotoxigenic E. coli isolates were highly resistant to ampicillin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline. Approximately 50% of Campylobacter coli and 30% of Campylobacter jejuni isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Over 33% of Salmonella isolates were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, and almost 100% of Shigella isolates were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.


These data on the etiology of diarrhea and antibiotic resistance patterns in Cambodia will have significant effect on local public health policies and on local resource prioritization practices.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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