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J Virol. 2011 Jun;85(11):5565-70. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00166-11. Epub 2011 Mar 16.

Vaccination alters the balance between protective immunity, exhaustion, escape, and death in chronic infections.

Author information

1
Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. plfjohnson@emory.edu

Abstract

While T cell-based vaccines have the potential to provide protection against chronic virus infections, they also have the potential to generate immunopathology following subsequent virus infection. We develop a mathematical model to investigate the conditions under which T cells lead to protection versus adverse pathology. The model illustrates how the balance between virus clearance and immune exhaustion may be disrupted when vaccination generates intermediate numbers of specific CD8 T cells. Surprisingly, our model suggests that this adverse effect of vaccination is largely unaffected by the generation of mutant viruses that evade T cell recognition and cannot be avoided by simply increasing the quality (affinity) or diversity of the T cell response. These findings should be taken into account when developing vaccines against persistent infections.

PMID:
21411537
PMCID:
PMC3094965
DOI:
10.1128/JVI.00166-11
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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