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Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun;65(6):703-10. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2011.20. Epub 2011 Mar 16.

Effect of walnut-enriched meat on the relationship between VCAM, ICAM, and LTB4 levels and PON-1 activity in ApoA4 360 and PON-1 allele carriers at increased cardiovascular risk.

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Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología I, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.



Cardiovascular risk depends largely on paraoxonase (PON-1) and apolipoprotein A4 (APOA4) gene polymorphisms. To compare the effects of consumption of walnut-enriched meat versus low-fat meat (LM) on selected soluble adhesion molecules and leukotrienes (LTB4).


In all 22 subjects at increased cardiovascular risk were taken. It is a non-blinded, cross-over, placebo-controlled study. Two 5-week experimental periods separated by 4-6 week wash-out interval. Participants consumed walnut-enriched meat during one period and LM during the other. Diet characteristics, HDLc, Apo A1, paraoxonase, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1 and LTB4 were analysed. PON-1 55, PON-1 192 and APOA4 360 polymorphism effects were also assessed.


Individuals consuming walnut-enriched meat displayed higher paraoxonase activity (P<0.001), lower levels of sICAM and aVCAM (P=0.046, P=0.012, respectively) and leukotriene B4 (P=0.044), and lower paraoxonase-1/HDLc and paraoxonase-1/Apo A1 ratios (both, P<0.001) than those consuming LM. Paraoxonase levels correlated negatively with those of sICAM (r=-0.471, P<0.01). Significant decreases (at least P<0.05) were observed in sICAM concentrations in PON-1 55LM+MM, PON-1 QQ192 and APOA4-2 carriers while decreases in sVCAM in QR+RR and APOA4-1 carriers were observed. Paraoxonase-1/HDLc and paraoxonase-1/Apo A1 ratios were significantly influenced by paraoxonase polymorphisms.


Walnut-enriched meat appears as a functional meat as consumed in the framework of a mix diet lowered the concentration of some selected inflammatory chemoattractant biomarkers. This effect was largely influenced by PON-1 and Apo A4-360 polymorphisms.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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