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Acad Emerg Med. 2011 Mar;18(3):237-45. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2011.01010.x.

A prospective case series of single-syringe ketamine-propofol (Ketofol) for emergency department procedural sedation and analgesia in adults.

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Emergency Department, Lions Gate Hospital, North Vancouver, British Columbia.



The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness, recovery time, and adverse event profile of intravenous (IV) mixed 1:1 ketamine-propofol (ketofol) for adult procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) in the emergency department (ED).


  Prospective data were collected on all PSA events over a 4.5-year period in a trauma-receiving suburban teaching hospital. PSAs using a 1:1 single-syringe mixture of 10 mg/mL ketamine and 10 mg/mL propofol in patients over 21 years of age were analyzed. Physiologic data, drug doses, adverse events, recovery time, patient satisfaction, and staff satisfaction were recorded.


Ketofol PSA was used in 728 patients for primarily orthopedic procedures. Median patient age was 53 years (range = 21 to 99 years, interquartile range [IQR] = 36-70 years). The median dose of ketamine and propofol was 0.7 mg/kg each (range =0.2 to 2.7 mg/kg, IQR = 0.5-0.9 mg/kg), and median recovery time was 14 minutes (range = 3 to 50 minutes, IQR = 10-17 minutes). PSA was effective in 717 cases (98%). Bag-mask ventilation occurred in 15 patients (2.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0% to 3.1%). Recovery agitation occurred in 26 patients (3.6%; 95% CI = 2.2% to 4.9%), of whom 13 (1.8%; 95% CI = 0.8% to 2.7%) required treatment. One patient experienced vomiting and one patient was admitted to the hospital for monitoring of transient dysrhythmia and hypotension. No sequelae were identified. The median staff satisfaction scores were 10 (IQR = 9-10) on a scale of 1 to 10, and 97% of patients would have chosen the same method of PSA in the future.


  Ketofol is an effective PSA agent in adult ED patients. Recovery times are short and adverse events are few. Patients and ED staff were highly satisfied.

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