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Eur J Med Chem. 2011 May;46(5):1757-67. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2011.02.029. Epub 2011 Feb 22.

Amodiaquine analogues containing NO-donor substructures: synthesis and their preliminary evaluation as potential tools in the treatment of cerebral malaria.

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Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, Via P. Giuria 9, I-10125 Torino, Italy.


The synthesis and physico-chemical properties of novel compounds obtained by conjugation of amodiaquine with moieties containing either furoxan or nitrooxy NO-donor substructures are described. The synthesised compounds were tested in vitro against both the chloroquine sensitive, D10 and the chloroquine resistant, W-2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Most of the compounds showed an antiplasmodial activity comparable to that of the parent drug. By comparing the activities of simple related structures devoid of the ability to release NO, it appears that the contribution of NO to the antiplasmodial action in vitro is marginal. All the compounds were able to relax rat aorta strips with a NO-dependent mechanism, thus showing their capacity to release NO in the vessels. A preliminary in vivo study using Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected mice showed a trend for prolonged survival of mice with cerebral malaria treated with compound 40, which is potent and fast amodiaquine-derived NO-donor, when compared with amodiaquine alone or with compound 31, a milder NO-donor. The two compounds showed in vivo antiplasmodial activity similar to that of amodiaquine.

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