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J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Apr;34(2):130-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2885.2010.01198.x.

Pharmacokinetics of cefpodoxime in plasma and subcutaneous fluid following oral administration of cefpodoxime proxetil in male beagle dogs.

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1
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

Abstract

Pharmacokinetics of cefpodoxime in plasma (total concentration) and subcutaneous fluid (free concentration using microdialysis) was investigated in dogs following single oral administration of prodrug cefpodoxime proxetil (equivalent to 5 and 10 mg/kg of cefpodoxime). In a cross over study design, six dogs per dose were utilized after a 1 week washout period. Plasma, microdialysate, and urine samples were collected upto 24 h and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. The average maximum concentration (C(max) ) of cefpodoxime in plasma was 13.66 (±6.30) and 27.14 (±4.56) μg/mL with elimination half-life (t(1/2) ) of 3.01 (±0.49) and 4.72 (±1.46) h following 5 and 10 mg/kg dose, respectively. The respective average area under the curve (AUC(0-∞) ) was 82.94 (±30.17) and 107.71 (±30.79) μg·h/mL. Cefpodoxime was readily distributed to skin and average free C(max) in subcutaneous fluid was 1.70 (±0.55) and 3.06 (±0.93) μg/mL at the two doses. Urinary excretion (unchanged cefpodoxime) was the major elimination route. Comparison of subcutaneous fluid concentrations using pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic indices of fT(>MIC) indicated that at 10 mg/kg dose; cefpodoxime would yield good therapeutic outcome in skin infections for bacteria with MIC(50) upto 0.5 μg/mL while higher doses (or more frequent dosing) may be needed for bacteria with higher MICs. High urine concentrations suggested cefpodoxime use for urinary infections in dogs.

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