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Neurosurgery. 2011 Jun;68(6):1687-94; discussion 1694. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318214e2e7.

High-flow extracranial-to-intracranial excimer laser-assisted nonocclusive anastomosis bypass for symptomatic carotid artery occlusion.

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Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Utrecht, The Netherlands.



A high-flow bypass is theoretically more effective than a conventional low-flow bypass in preventing strokes in patients with symptomatic carotid artery occlusion and a compromised hemodynamic state of the brain.


To study the results of excimer laser-assisted nonocclusive anastomosis (ELANA) high-flow extracranial-to-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery in these patients.


Between August 1998 and May 2008, 24 patients underwent ELANA EC-IC bypass surgery because of transient ischemic attacks or minor ischemic stroke associated with carotid artery occlusion. We retrospectively collected information. Follow-up data were updated by structured telephone interviews between May and September 2008.


In all patients, the ELANA EC-IC bypass was patent at the end of surgery with a mean flow of 106 ± 41 mL/min. Within 30 days after the operation, 22 patients (92%) had no major complication, whereas 2 patients (8%) had a fatal intracerebral hemorrhage. During follow-up of a mean 4.4 ± 2.4 years, the bypass remained patent in 18 of the 22 surviving patients (82%) with a mean flow of 141 ± 59 mL/min. All patients with a patent bypass remained free of transient ischemic attacks and ischemic stroke. In 4 patients, the bypass occluded, accompanied by ipsilateral transient ischemic attacks in 2 patients, ipsilateral ischemic stroke in 1 patient, and contralateral ischemic stroke in another patient.


ELANA EC-IC bypass surgery in patients with carotid artery occlusion is technically feasible and results in cessation of ongoing transient ischemic attacks and minor ischemic strokes, but carries a risk of postoperative hemorrhage.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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