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J Phys Condens Matter. 2010 Sep 29;22(38):385902. doi: 10.1088/0953-8984/22/38/385902. Epub 2010 Sep 8.

First-principles density functional study of polarization-strain coupling in bismuth titanate.

Author information

1
Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, UK. shshah@pieas.edu.pk

Abstract

The influence of uniaxial and biaxial strain (± 3%) on the spontaneous polarization of orthorhombic bismuth titanate (Bi(4)Ti(3)O(12)) is investigated using a first-principles density functional approach. Born effective charges are obtained using linear response theory. In unstrained bismuth titanate the calculated principal component of polarization along the a axis (P(a)) is 0.46 C m(-2), which is close to the experimental measurement of 0.50 C m(-2). Uniaxial strain along this axis is more effective than along the c axis in improving this component of polarization, by up to 17% for a tensile strain of 3%. Compressive strain along the c axis also enhances P(a) but to a lesser degree. Biaxial strain has a more significant effect on P(a) than uniaxial strain. A simultaneous uniform tensile strain of 3% along the a and b axes enhances the principal component of polarization by 39% while a similar strain along the c and b axes produces an enhancement of 8%. These effects are explained in terms of the off-centre displacements of ions and have implications for device applications of bismuth titanate which use epitaxially strained thin-film heterostructures.

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