Send to

Choose Destination
Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2011 Apr 1;4(2):188-94. doi: 10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.110.959262. Epub 2011 Mar 8.

Procedure-type risk categories for pediatric and congenital cardiac catheterization.

Author information

Department of Cardiology, Children’s Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, USA.



The Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes (C3PO) was established to develop outcome assessment methods for pediatric catheterization.


Six sites have been recording demographic, procedural and immediate outcome data on all cases, using a web-based system since February 2007. A sample of data was independently audited for validity and data completeness. In 2006, participants categorized 84 procedure types into 6 categories by anticipated risk of an adverse event (AE). Consensus and empirical methods were used to determine final procedure risk categories, based on the outcomes: any AE (level 1 to 5); AE level 3, 4, or 5; and death or life-threatening event (level 4 or 5). The final models were then evaluated for validity in a prospectively collected data set between May 2008 and December 31, 2009. Between February 2007 and April 2008, 3756 cases were recorded, 558 (14.9%) with any AE; 226 (6.0%) level 3, 4, or 5; and 73 (1.9%) level 4 or 5. General estimating equations models using 6 consensus-based risk categories were moderately predictive of AE occurrence (c-statistics: 0.644, 0.664, and 0.707). The participant panel made adjustments based on the collected empirical data supported by clinical judgment. These decisions yielded 4 procedure risk categories; the final models had improved discrimination, with c-statistics of 0.699, 0.725, and 0.765. Similar discrimination was observed in the performance data set (n=7043), with c-statistics of 0.672, 0.708, and 0.721.


Procedure-type risk categories are associated with different complication rates in our data set and could be an important variable in risk adjustment models for pediatric catheterization.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center