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J Biol Chem. 2011 Apr 29;286(17):15565-76. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.193102. Epub 2011 Mar 8.

Biosynthetic and iron metabolism is regulated by thiol proteome changes dependent on glutaredoxin-2 and mitochondrial peroxiredoxin-1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Córdoba Maimónides Institute for Biomedical Research (IMIBIC), University of Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain.


Redoxins are involved in maintenance of thiol redox homeostasis, but their exact sites of action are only partly known. We have applied a combined redox proteomics and transcriptomics experimental strategy to discover specific functions of two interacting redoxins: dually localized glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2p) and mitochondrial peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1p). We have identified 139 proteins showing differential postranslational thiol redox modifications when the cells do not express Grx2p, Prx1p, or both and have mapped the precise cysteines involved in each case. Some of these modifications constitute functional switches that affect metabolic and signaling pathways as the primary effect, leading to gene transcription remodeling as the secondary adaptive effect as demonstrated by a parallel high throughput gene expression analysis. The results suggest that in the absence of Grx2p, the metabolic flow toward nucleotide and aromatic amino acid biosynthesis is slowed down by redox modification of the key enzymes Rpe1p (D-ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase), Tkl1p (transketolase) and Aro4p (3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase). The glycolytic mainstream is then diverted toward carbohydrate storage by induction of trehalose and glycogen biosynthesis genes. Porphyrin biosynthesis may also be compromised by inactivation of the redox-sensitive cytosolic enzymes Hem12p (uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase) and Sam1p (S-adenosyl methionine synthetase) and a battery of respiratory genes sensitive to low heme levels are induced. Genes of the Aft1p-dependent iron regulon were induced specifically in the absence of Prx1p despite optimal mitochondrial Fe-S biogenesis, suggesting dysfunction of the mitochondria to the cytosol signaling pathway. Strikingly, requirement of Grx2p for these events places dithiolic Grx2 in the framework of iron metabolism.

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