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Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2011 Jun;15(6):753-65. doi: 10.1517/14728222.2011.566560. Epub 2011 Mar 9.

Toll-like receptors as potential therapeutic targets in cardiac dysfunction.

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1
University Hospital Würzburg, Department of Internal Medicine I, Oberdürrbacherstraße 6, 97080 Würzburg, Germany.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

The innate immune system can detect the highly conserved, relatively invariant structural motifs of pathogens. The most important innate immune receptors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), represent a first line of defense against infectious pathogens, and play a pivotal role in initiating and shaping innate and adaptive immune responses. TLRs are not only expressed in immune cells, but also in cardiovascular cells. In addition to their role in response to microbial infections, evidence suggests that TLRs can also recognize endogenous ligands and may play a role in mediating cardiomyocyte cell death and survival after non-infectious injury.

AREAS COVERED:

TLRs could be a link between cardiovascular diseases and the immune system. Experimentally, there is good evidence that TLR activation contributes to development and progression of both acute cardiac injury and chronic heart failure. The role of TLRs in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion, remodeling, septic cardiomyoparthy, autoimmune- and viral myocarditis, anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy and cardiac hypertrophy, in basic as well as clinical science are discussed.

EXPERT OPINION:

Evidence, mainly from animal experiments, indicates that TLRs contribute to all of the myocardial disease states reviewed in this paper. However, the relevance of TLRs as therapeutic targets remains to be defined as clinical data is sparse.

PMID:
21385118
DOI:
10.1517/14728222.2011.566560
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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