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J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Apr 6;133(13):4856-64. doi: 10.1021/ja1091062. Epub 2011 Mar 8.

Thiazole orange-induced c-di-GMP quadruplex formation facilitates a simple fluorescent detection of this ubiquitous biofilm regulating molecule.

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Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA.


Recently, there has been an explosion of research activities in the cyclic dinucleotides field. Cyclic dinucleotides, such as c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP, have been shown to regulate bacterial virulence and biofilm formation. c-di-GMP can exist in different aggregate forms, and it has been demonstrated that the polymorphism of c-di-GMP is influenced by the nature of cation that is present in solution. In previous work, polymorphism of c-di-GMP could only be demonstrated at hundreds of micromolar concentrations of the dinucleotide, and it has been a matter of debate if polymorphism of c-di-GMP exists under in vivo conditions. In this Article, we demonstrate that c-di-GMP can form G-quadruplexes at low micromolar concentrations when aromatic molecules such as thiazole orange template the quadruplex formation. We then use this property of aromatic molecule-induced G-quadruplex formation of c-di-GMP to design a thiazole orange-based fluorescent detection of this important signaling molecule. We determine, using this thiazole orange assay on a crude bacterial cell lysate, that WspR D70E (a constitutively activated diguanylate cyclase) is functional in vivo when overexpressed in E. Coli . The intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP in an E. Coli cell that is overexpressed with WspR D70E is very high and can reach 2.92 mM.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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