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Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011 Dec 15;57(7):1210-6. doi: 10.1002/pbc.23090. Epub 2011 Mar 7.

Twenty-five year follow-up of childhood Wilms tumor: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

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Department of Pediatrics, University of Southern California, Miller Children's Hospital, Long Beach, California 90806, USA.



Treatment cures over 90% of children with Wilms tumor (WT) who subsequently risk late morbidity and mortality. This study describes the 25-year outcomes of 5-year WT survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS).


The CCSS, a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study, assessed WT survivors (N = 1,256), diagnosed 1970-1986, for chronic health conditions, health status, health care utilization, socioeconomic status, subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs), and mortality compared to the US population and a sibling cohort (N = 4,023).


The cumulative incidence of all and severe chronic health conditions was 65.4% and 24.2% at 25 years. Hazard ratios (HR) were 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-2.3 for grades 1-4 and 4.7, 95%CI 3.6-6.1 for grades 3 and 4, compared to sibling group. WT survivors reported more adverse general health status than the sibling group (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.7; 95%CI 1.2-2.4), but mental health status, socioeconomic outcome, and health care utilization were similar. The cumulative incidence of SMN was 3.0% (95%CI 1.9-4.0%) and of mortality was 6.1% (95%CI 4.7-7.4%). Radiation exposure increased the likelihood of congestive heart failure (CHF) (no doxorubicin-HR 6.6; 95%CI 1.6-28.3; doxorubicin ≤ 250 mg/m(2) -HR 13.0; 95%CI 1.9-89.7; doxorubicin >250 mg/m(2) -HR 18.3; 95%CI 3.8-88.2), SMN (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 9.0; 95%CI 3.9-17.7 with and 4.9; 95%CI 1.8-10.6 without doxorubicin) and death.


Long-term survivors of WT treated from 1970 to 1986 are at increased risk of treatment related morbidity and mortality 25 years from diagnosis.

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