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J Anxiety Disord. 2011 May;25(4):604-11. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2011.01.010. Epub 2011 Mar 4.

Gender differences in the factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in war-exposed adolescents.

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National Centre of Psychotraumatology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.


DSM-IV's three-factor model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is rarely empirically supported, whereas other four-factor models (King et al., 1998; Simms, Watson, & Doebbeling, 2002) have proven to be better representations of PTSD's latent structure. To date, a clear consensus as to which model provides the best representation of PTSD's underlying dimensions has yet to be reached. The current study investigated whether gender is associated with factor structure differences using the King et al. (1998) model of reexperiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal PTSD symptoms. Participants were war-exposed Bosnian secondary/high school boys and girls (N=1572) assessed nearly two years after the 1992-1995 Bosnian conflict. Confirmatory factor analytic tests of measurement invariance across PTSD model parameters revealed many significant sex-linked differences. Implications regarding the potential role of gender as a moderator of the King et al. (1998) model's factor structure are discussed.

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