Send to

Choose Destination
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012 Feb 1;82(2):635-42. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.11.048. Epub 2011 Mar 4.

Proton radiotherapy for parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma: clinical outcomes and late effects.

Author information

Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.



To report the clinical outcome and late side effect profile of proton radiotherapy in the treatment of children with parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma (PM-RMS).


Seventeen consecutive children with PM-RMS were treated with proton radiotherapy at Massachusetts General Hospital between 1996 and 2005. We reviewed the medical records of all patients and asked referring physicians to report specific side effects of interest.


Median patient age at diagnosis was 3.4 years (range, 0.4-17.6). Embryonal (n = 11), alveolar (n = 4), and undifferentiated (n = 2) histologies were represented. Ten patients (59%) had intracranial extension. Median prescribed dose was 50.4 cobalt gray equivalents (GyRBE) (range, 50.4-56.0 GyRBE) delivered in 1.8-2.0-GyRBE daily fractions. Median follow-up was 5.0 years for survivors. The 5-year failure-free survival estimate was 59% (95% confidence interval, 33-79%), and overall survival estimate was 64% (95% confidence interval, 37-82%). Among the 7 patients who failed, sites of first recurrence were local only (n = 2), regional only (n = 2), distant only (n = 2), and local and distant (n = 1). Late effects related to proton radiotherapy in the 10 recurrence-free patients (median follow-up, 5 years) include failure to maintain height velocity (n = 3), endocrinopathies (n = 2), mild facial hypoplasia (n = 7), failure of permanent tooth eruption (n = 3), dental caries (n = 5), and chronic nasal/sinus congestion (n = 2).


Proton radiotherapy for patients with PM-RMS yields tumor control and survival comparable to that in historical controls with similar poor prognostic factors. Furthermore, rates of late effects from proton radiotherapy compare favorably to published reports of photon-treated cohorts.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center