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Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2011 Jan;40(1):26-9.

An approach to the ethical evaluation of innovative surgical procedures.

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Department of General Surgery, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.


While there is an ethical obligation to improve clinical outcomes by developing better therapies, surgical innovation has largely progressed without the strict regulations required of novel pharmaceutical products. We explore the reasons why new surgical techniques are frequently introduced without the benefit of randomised controlled trials, and present an approach to the ethical evaluation of novel surgical procedures.

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