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Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2010 Dec;13(Suppl 2):S63-8. doi: 10.4103/0972-2327.74247.

Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic disorders leading to dementia.

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Department of Neurology and Cognitive Neurology Unit, Apollo Gleneagles Hospitals, Kolkata, India.


One of the first steps toward the correct diagnosis of dementia is to segregate out the nondegenerative dementias from possible degenerative dementias. Nondegenerative dementias could be due to traumatic, endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, toxic, infective, and immunological causes. They could also be caused by tumors, subdural hematomas, and normal pressure hydrocephalus. Many of the nondegenerative dementias occur at an earlier age and often progress quickly compared to Alzheimer's disease and other degenerative dementias. Many are treatable or preventable with simple measures. This review aims to give an overview of some of the more important endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic disorders that may lead to dementia.


Dementia; endocrine; metabolic; nutritional; reversible dementia; toxins

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