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Kidney Int. 2011 Jun;79(11):1236-43. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.33. Epub 2011 Mar 2.

A phase 1, single-dose study of fresolimumab, an anti-TGF-β antibody, in treatment-resistant primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

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Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Cohen Children's Medical Center, New Hyde Park, New York, USA.


Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a disease with poor prognosis and high unmet therapeutic need. Here, we evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics of single-dose infusions of fresolimumab, a human monoclonal antibody that inactivates all forms of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), in a phase I open-label, dose-ranging study. Patients with biopsy-confirmed, treatment-resistant, primary FSGS with a minimum estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 25  ml/min per 1.73  m(2), and a urine protein to creatinine ratio over 1.8  mg/mg were eligible. All 16 patients completed the study in which each received one of four single-dose levels of fresolimumab (up to 4  mg/kg) and was followed for 112 days. Fresolimumab was well tolerated with pustular rash the only adverse event in two patients. One patient was diagnosed with a histologically confirmed primitive neuroectodermal tumor 2 years after fresolimumab treatment. Consistent with treatment-resistant FSGS, there was a slight decline in eGFR (median decline baseline to final of 5.85 ml/min per 1.73  m(2)). Proteinuria fluctuated during the study with the median decline from baseline to final in urine protein to creatinine ratio of 1.2  mg/mg with all three Black patients having a mean decline of 3.6  mg/mg. The half-life of fresolimumab was ∼14 days, and the mean dose-normalized Cmax and area under the curve were independent of dose. Thus, single-dose fresolimumab was well tolerated in patients with primary resistant FSGS. Additional evaluation in a larger dose-ranging study is necessary.

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