Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Orthod. 2011 Mar;38(1):21-31. doi: 10.1179/14653121141209.

Steiner's cephalometric norms for the Nepalese population.

Author information

Department of Orthodontics, College of Dental Surgery, B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal.



To establish the Steiner's cephalometric norms for a Nepalese population, compare the gender and inter-racial variations in dentoskeletal and soft tissue structures, and to test the null hypothesis that there are no racial differences in cephalometric measurements between Nepalese, Caucasians and other populations.


Prospective, cross-sectional study.


One hundred and twenty lateral cephalograms of Nepalese subjects aged 16-21years with class I normal occlusion and balanced facial aesthetics were selected. The cephalometric variables were measured. An independent one sample t test was used to compare the Steiner's ideal values with Indo-Aryan Nepalese means and independent t test to compare Japanese means with Mongoloid Nepalese means and Mongoloids with Aryans. Intra-investigator error was assessed with Lin's concordance method and the reliability of aesthetic evaluation of the photographs was tested with Cronbach's alpha.


Nepalese Mongoloid males possessed more protrusive lips (Z angle mean difference, 8°; P < 0·001) than the Indo-Aryan males. Mongoloid females had more protrusive mandible (SNB angle mean difference, 3·7°; P<0·001), greater class II skeletal bases (SND angle mean difference, 3·5°; P < 0·001), longer SL length (mean difference, 5·6 mm; P < 0·01), more proclined upper incisors (U1-NA mean difference, 6°; P < 0·01) and a more protrusive lower lip (lower lip-S line mean difference, 0·9 mm; P = 0·003), lower lip-E line (2·0 mm; P < 0·001) and Z angle (4·4°; P < 0·001), than the Indo-Aryan females. Differences between the Nepalese sample and published Caucasian and Japanese norms are also described.


Differences in the cephalometric values exist between the two ethnic groups in Nepal, as well as between our Nepalese sample and published Caucasians and Japanese norms. The norms published in this article will be useful when planning orthodontic treatment in Mongoloid and Indo-Aryan individuals.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Taylor & Francis
    Loading ...
    Support Center