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Biochemistry. 2011 Apr 5;50(13):2567-74. doi: 10.1021/bi2000214. Epub 2011 Feb 28.

Redox state-dependent interaction of HMGB1 and cisplatin-modified DNA.

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Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307, United States.


HMGB1, one of the most abundant nuclear proteins, has a strong binding affinity for cisplatin-modified DNA. It has been proposed that HMGB1 enhances the anticancer efficacy of cisplatin by shielding platinated DNA lesions from repair. Two cysteine residues in HMGB1 domain A form a reversible disulfide bond under mildly oxidizing conditions. The reduced domain A protein binds to a 25-bp DNA probe containing a central 1,2-d(GpG) intrastrand cross-link, the major platinum-DNA adduct, with a 10-fold greater binding affinity than the oxidized domain A. The binding affinities of singly and doubly mutated HMGB1 domain A, respectively deficient in one or both cysteine residues that form the disulfide bond, are unaffected by changes in external redox conditions. The redox-dependent nature of the binding of HMGB1 domain A to cisplatin-modified DNA suggests that formation of the intradomain disulfide bond induces a conformational change that disfavors binding to cisplatin-modified DNA. Hydroxyl radical footprinting analyses of wild-type domain A bound to platinated DNA under different redox conditions revealed identical cleavage patterns, implying that the asymmetric binding mode of the protein across from the platinated lesion is conserved irrespective of the redox state. The results of this study reveal that the cellular redox environment can influence the interaction of HMGB1 with the platinated DNA and suggest that the redox state of the A domain is a potential factor in regulating the role of the protein in modulating the activity of cisplatin as an anticancer drug.

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