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Am J Cardiol. 2011 Apr 15;107(8):1163-7. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2010.12.012. Epub 2011 Feb 23.

Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy by bolus injection of sodium bicarbonate in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing emergent coronary procedures.

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  • 1Division of Cardiology, Osaka General Medical Center, Osaka, Japan.


We conducted a prospective study to determine whether a bolus injection of sodium bicarbonate before emergent coronary procedures in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) might prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). We enrolled 59 patients with CKD, defined by a serum creatinine concentration of >1.1 mg/dl or an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 ml/min, who were scheduled at admission to undergo an emergent coronary procedure. The patients were randomized to receive a bolus intravenous injection of 154 mEq/L of sodium bicarbonate (n = 30) or sodium chloride (n = 29) at the dose of 0.5 ml/kg, before contrast administration, followed by infusion of 154 mEq/L sodium bicarbonate at 1 ml/kg/hour for 6 hours in both groups. The primary end point was the occurrence of CIN, defined as an increase by > 25% or > 0.5 mg/dl of the serum creatinine level within 2 days after the procedure. In the sodium bicarbonate group, the serum creatinine concentration remained unchanged within 2 days of contrast administration (from 1.32 ± 0.46 to 1.38 ± 0.60 mg/dl, p = 0.33). In contrast, it had increased in the sodium chloride group (1.51 ± 0.59 to 1.91 ± 1.19 mg/dl, p = 0.006). The incidence of CIN was significantly lower in the sodium bicarbonate group than in the sodium chloride group (3.3% vs 27.6%, p = 0.01). In conclusion, rapid alkalization by bolus injection of sodium bicarbonate was effective for the prevention of CIN in patients with CKD undergoing emergent procedures.

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