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Isr Med Assoc J. 2010 Dec;12(12):751-6.

Vitamin D insufficiency in a sunny environment: a demographic and seasonal analysis.

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Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.



Hypovitaminosis D has been shown to be extremely common in various regions around the world, mostly at high latitudes. Israel is characterized by certain features--cultural (e.g., ethnic isolates) and geographic (e.g., sunny climate)--that have been identified for their possible association with vitamin D status.


To conduct an ecological study on a representative sample of the population of Israel, testing vitamin D status across age groups, genders, ethnic groups, and seasons.


We obtained serum samples from 195 heaIthy Israeli volunteers representing a broad demographic spectrum. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured with the commercial kit Liaison 25(OH)D Assay (DiaSorin, Italy).


The mean vitamin D level for the entire cohort was surprisingly low (22.9 +/- 10.1 ng/ml), with 149 subjects (78%) suffering from vitamin D insufficiency (< 30 ng/lml). Vitamin D status was better in infants than in olderage groups. Differences by gender were significant only inthe infant age group (i.e., vitamin D status was worse among females) and were not prominent across older ages. Israelis of Ashkenazi origin had higher vitamin D mean levels than those of Sephardic origin, who, in turn, had higher vitamin D levels than Arab subjects (31.4 +/- 12, 24.1 +/- 10, and 17.6 +/- 9 ng/ml respectively). With regard to season, there were no differences between the samples collected in winter and the samples collected in summer.


The results suggest that hypovitaminosis D is common across all ages, genders and seasons in Israel, a country characterized by a sunny Mediterranean climate. Specific ethnic groups may be at especially high risk.

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