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J Mol Med (Berl). 2011 Jun;89(6):569-76. doi: 10.1007/s00109-011-0725-7. Epub 2011 Feb 24.

Molecular analysis of 51 unrelated pedigrees with late-onset multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD) in southern China confirmed the most common ETFDH mutation and high carrier frequency of c.250G>A.

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Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, China.


Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD) is an autosomal recessive disease affecting amino acid, fatty acid, and choline metabolisms and is a common genetic defect responsible for lipid storage myopathy. Most forms of MADD are caused by a deficiency of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or ETF dehydrogenase (ETFDH). However, its molecular feature has not been found uniformly in previous reports of Chinese patients. A large cohort of 56 late-onset MADD patients from 51 unrelated pedigrees in southern China was recruited to investigate a clear correlation between clinical phenotype and molecular genetic basis. All exons of ETFA, ETFB, and ETFDH, including the intron-exon boundaries, and 5' and 3' untranslated regions were directly sequenced. ETFDH deficiencies affected 94.1% (48/51) of the pedigrees. ETFDH-c.250G>A is the most common mutation, representing a high allelic frequency of 83.3% (80/96). Carrier frequency of c.250G>A is estimated to be 1.35% (7/520) in the normal population. A significant reduced expression of ETFDH was identified in the muscle of ETFDH-deficient patients. ETFDH deficiency is a major cause of riboflavin-responsive MADD in southern China, and c.250G>A is an important mutation that could be employed as a fast and reliable screening method.

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