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Parasitol Res. 2011 Sep;109(3):581-9. doi: 10.1007/s00436-011-2289-4. Epub 2011 Feb 24.

Investigations of peritoneal and intestinal infections of adult hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California (2003).

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Department of Veterinary Science, Gluck Equine Research Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546-0099, USA.


The peritoneal cavity (PNC) and intestine of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups that died in late July and early August, 2003, on San Miguel Island, California, were examined for hookworms. Prevalence and morphometric studies were done with the hookworms in addition to molecular characterization. Based on this and previous molecular studies, hookworms from fur seals are designated as Uncinaria lucasi and the species from sea lions as Uncinaria species A. Adult hookworms were found in the PNC of 35 of 57 (61.4%) fur seal pups and of 13 of 104 (12.5%) sea lion pups. The number of hookworms located in the PNC ranged from 1 to 33 (median = 3) for the infected fur seal pups and 1 to 16 (median = 2) for the infected sea lion pups. In addition to the PNC, intestines of 43 fur seal and 32 sea lion pups were examined. All of these pups were positive for adult hookworms. The worms were counted from all but one of the sea lion pups. Numbers of these parasites in the intestine varied from 3 to 2,344 (median = 931) for the fur seal pups and 39 to 2,766 (median = 643) for the sea lion pups. Sea lion pups with peritoneal infections had higher intensity infections in the intestines than did pups without peritoneal infections, lending some support for the hypothesis that peritoneal infections result from high-intensity infections of adult worms. There was no difference in intestinal infection intensities between fur seal pups with and without peritoneal infections. Female adult hookworms in the intestines of both host species were significantly larger than males, and sea lion hookworms were larger than those in fur seals. Worms in the intestine also were larger than worms found in the PNC. Gene sequencing and (RFLP) analysis of (PCR) amplified (ITS) ribosomal DNA were used to diagnose the species of 172 hookworms recovered from the PNC and intestine of 18 C. ursinus and seven Z. californianus hosts. These molecular data revealed that U. lucasi (hookworm of C. ursinus) and Uncinaria species A (of Z. californianus) infrequently mature in the intestine of the opposite host species in California rookeries. However, there is no support from molecular data for the hypothesis that cross-infection with "the wrong" Uncinaria species is a contributing factor in these cases of host peritonitis. The major significance of this research is the unusual finding of adult hookworms in the PNC of so many dead pups. No obvious explanation for this occurrence could be determined. Further research, like in the present study, should help understand and monitor the apparent ever changing role of hookworm disease in the health of northern fur seal and California sea lion pups on SMI.

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