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Kidney Int Suppl. 2011 Apr;(121):S20-3. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.26. Epub 2011 Feb 23.

Phosphate and Klotho.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390-9072, USA. Makoto.Kuro-o@UTSouthwestern.edu

Abstract

Klotho is a putative aging suppressor gene encoding a single-pass transmembrane co-receptor that makes the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor specific for FGF-23. In addition to multiple endocrine organs, Klotho is expressed in kidney distal convoluted tubules and parathyroid cells, mediating the role of FGF-23 in bone-kidney-parathyroid control of phosphate and calcium. Klotho⁻/⁻ mice display premature aging and chronic kidney disease-associated mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD)-like phenotypes mediated by hyperphosphatemia and remediated by phosphate-lowering interventions (diets low in phosphate or vitamin D; knockouts of 1α-hydroxylase, vitamin D receptor, or NaPi cotransporter). CKD can be seen as a state of hyperphosphatemia-induced accelerated aging associated with Klotho deficiency. Humans with CKD experience decreased Klotho expression as early as stage 1 CKD; Klotho continues to decline as CKD progresses, causing FGF-23 resistance and provoking large FGF-23 and parathyroid hormone increases, and hypovitaminosis D. Secreted Klotho protein, formed by extracellular clipping, exerts FGF-23-independent phosphaturic and calcium-conserving effects through its paracrine action on the proximal and distal tubules, respectively. We contend that decreased Klotho expression is the earliest biomarker of CKD and the initiator of CKD-MBD pathophysiology. Maintaining normal phosphate levels with phosphate binders in patients with CKD with declining Klotho expression is expected to reduce mineral and vascular derangements.

PMID:
21346722
PMCID:
PMC3260960
DOI:
10.1038/ki.2011.26
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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