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Prev Vet Med. 2011 May 1;99(2-4):193-200. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2011.01.011. Epub 2011 Feb 23.

Association between chronic azotemic kidney disease and the severity of periodontal disease in dogs.

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Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7594, USA. larry


Naturally occurring periodontal disease affects >75% of dogs and has been associated with cardiac lesions and presumptive endocarditis. However, the relationships between periodontal disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in dogs have not been studied. In a retrospective longitudinal study the incidence of azotemic CKD was compared between a cohort of 164,706 dogs with periodontal disease and a cohort of age-matched dogs with no periodontal disease from a national primary care practice. These dogs contributed 415,971 dog-years of follow-up from 2002 to 2008. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals from Cox regression were used to compare the incidence of azotemic CKD in dogs with stage 1, 2, or 3/4 periodontal disease to dogs with no periodontal disease. The hazard ratio for azotemic CKD increased with increasing severity of periodontal disease (stage 1 hazard ratio=1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.6, 2.1; stage 2 hazard ratio=2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 2.3; stage 3/4 hazard ratio=2.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.3, 3.0; P(trend)=<0.0001) after adjustment for age, gender, neuter status, breed, body weight, number of hospital visits, and dental procedures. Increasing severity of periodontal disease was also associated with serum creatinine >1.4 mg/dl and blood urea nitrogen >36 mg/dl, independent of a veterinarian's clinical diagnosis of CKD.

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