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J Biol Chem. 2011 Apr 15;286(15):13561-73. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.215723. Epub 2011 Feb 22.

Differential temporal and spatial regulation of somatostatin receptor phosphorylation and dephosphorylation.

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Department of Integrative Biology and Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas 77225, USA.


The G(i)-coupled somatostatin 2A receptor (sst2A) mediates many of the neuromodulatory and neuroendocrine actions of somatostatin (SS) and is targeted by the SS analogs used to treat neuroendocrine tumors. As for other G protein-coupled receptors, agonists stimulate sst2A receptor phosphorylation on multiple residues, and phosphorylation at different sites has distinct effects on receptor internalization and uncoupling. To elucidate the spatial and temporal regulation of sst2A receptor phosphorylation, we examined agonist-stimulated phosphorylation of multiple receptor GPCR kinase sites using phospho-site-specific antibodies. SS increased receptor phosphorylation sequentially, first on Ser-341/343 and then on Thr-353/354, followed by receptor internalization. Reversal of receptor phosphorylation was determined by the duration of prior agonist exposure. In acutely stimulated cells, in which most receptors remained on the cell surface, dephosphorylation occurred only on Thr-353/354. In contrast, both Ser-341/343 and Thr-353/354 were rapidly dephosphorylated when cells were stimulated long enough to allow receptor internalization before agonist removal. Consistent with these observations, dephosphorylation of Thr-353/354 was not affected by either hypertonic sucrose or dynasore, which prevent receptor internalization, whereas dephosphorylation of Ser-341/343 was completely blocked. An okadaic acid- and fostriecin-sensitive phosphatase catalyzed the dephosphorylation of Thr-353/354 both intracellularly and at the cell surface. In contrast, dephosphorylation of Ser-341/343 was insensitive to these inhibitors. Our results show that the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of neighboring GPCR kinase sites in the sst2A receptor are subject to differential spatial and temporal regulation. Thus, the pattern of receptor phosphorylation is determined by the duration of agonist stimulation and compartment-specific enzymatic activity.

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