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Am J Med Genet A. 2011 Mar;155A(3):605-11. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.33787. Epub 2011 Feb 18.

CNS imaging is a key diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with CFC syndrome: two cases and literature review.

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Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece.


Cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome is characterized by a variable degree of cognitive impairment, and multiple congenital anomalies including characteristic facies, cardiac, and ectodermal abnormalities. CFC syndrome is caused by mutations in the genes BRAF, MEK1, or MEK2. Here we provide a follow-up report on two patients presenting distinct facial appearance and other features of the syndrome, and we present the first molecular evidence of paternal origin for a CFC-causing germline mutation. Brain imaging revealed a lipoma of the corpus callosum and periventricular leukoencephalopathy as well as a hypoplastic corpus callosum, and defects in myelinization, in each patient, respectively. A review of the literature showed that, although non-specific, ventriculomegaly, hydrocephalus, and cortical atrophy represent the most frequent imaging findings of brain anomalies in CFC syndrome. CNS abnormalities are significant diagnostic features of CFC syndrome and a brain MRI is recommended in individuals diagnosed with CFC or suspected of having CFC syndrome.

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