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Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011 Jun;30(6):1243-51. doi: 10.1002/etc.498. Epub 2011 Mar 25.

Quantitative determination of bisphenol A from human saliva using bulk derivatization and trap-and-elute liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

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Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas, USA.


Endocrine disruptors cause adverse health effects as a result of their ability to shift the hormonal balance that is essential to the body. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor that has garnered much attention because of its presence in many consumer materials, which generates a significant risk for exposure. A method is presented for rapid detection of oral exposure to BPA directly from human saliva. Saliva was chosen because it serves as a noninvasive sampling route to detect BPA exposure; however, it is one of many complex biological matrices that have traditionally posed problems in quantitative analysis. Such analyses usually require extensive sample preparation to reduce interferences contributed by the sample matrix. Three validated methods are presented here that feature a streamlined sample-preparation strategy (bulk derivatization) prior to accurate and sensitive analysis by trap-and-elute liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Validated methods include standard addition calibration with variable injection volumes and multiple injection loading, as well as with incorporation of an internal standard. Reported limits of detection reached as low as 49.0 pg/ml (2.9 pg loaded on-column; equivalent to parts per trillion in saliva) among the presented methods with good accuracy and precision throughout. A proof-of-concept study is demonstrated to show that the final validated method has potential application to specific studies for trace-level BPA detection from real samples.

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