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Int J Surg. 2011;9(4):324-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2011.02.004. Epub 2011 Feb 18.

Multimodality laparoscopic liver resection for hepatic malignancy--from conventional total laparoscopic approach to robot-assisted laparoscopic approach.

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Department of Surgery, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, 3 Lok Man Road, Chai Wan, Hong Kong SAR, China.



Laparoscopic liver resection can either be total laparoscopic or hand-assisted laparoscopic approach. The recent introduction of robotic surgical systems has revolutionized the field of minimally invasive surgery. It was developed to overcome the disadvantages of conventional laparoscopic surgery. The role of robotic system in laparoscopic surgery was not well evaluated yet. The aim of this cohort study was to evaluate the outcome of multimodality approach of laparoscopic liver resection for hepatic malignancy


From January 1998 to August 2010, all patients with hepatic malignancy underwent laparoscopic liver resection were included. A prospectively collected data was analyzed retrospectively.


During the study period, a total of 56 patients with hepatic malignancies (hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC, n = 42; colorectal liver metastases, CLM, n = 14) underwent laparoscopic liver resection in our surgical unit. The majority of cases were performed by hand-assisted laparoscopic approach, n = 31 (55.3%) and the remainder were with total laparoscopic approach, n = 10 (17.9%) and robot-assisted laparoscopic approach, n = 15 (26.8%). The median operation time was 150 min (range, 75-307 min). The median blood loss during surgery was 175 ml (range, 5-2000 ml). Two patients (3.6%) needed open conversion and one patient (1.8%) needed to be converted to hand-assisted laparoscopic approach. The morbidity rate was 14.3%. There was no procedure-related death. 89.3% of patients had R0 resection and 10.7% of patients had R1 resection. The median hospital stay was 6.5 days (range, 2-13 days). The 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year disease-free survival rates for HCC were 85%, 47%, and 38%, respectively. The 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year overall survival rates for HCC were 96%, 67%, and 52%, respectively. The 1-year, and 3-year disease-free survival rates for CLM were 92% and 72%. The 1-year, and 3-year overall survival rates for CLM were 100% and 88%, respectively.


Multimodality approach of laparoscopic liver resection of hepatic malignancy was feasible, and safe in selected patients. It was associated with a low complications rate. The mid-term and long-term survival outcome was favorable also.

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