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Semin Intervent Radiol. 2006 Mar;23(1):47-63. doi: 10.1055/s-2006-939841.

Epidemiology of primary and secondary liver cancers.

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Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.


Primary liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide with a wide geographic distribution. The incidence of primary liver cancer is increasing and there is still a higher prevalence in developing countries. Early recognition remains an obstacle and lack of it results in poor outcomes for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most prevalent primary liver cancer, and cholangiocarcinoma. The most common risk factors associated with HCC are hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C infections, alcohol use, smoking, and aflatoxin exposure. Emerging risk factors such as obesity might play an important role in the future because of the increasing prevalence of this condition.


Primary liver cancer; cholangiocarcinoma; chronic hepatitis B; chronic hepatitis C; hepatocellular carcinoma

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