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Immunotherapy. 2011 Feb;3(2):269-85. doi: 10.2217/imt.10.93.

Vaccines and immunotherapeutics for the prevention and treatment of infections with West Nile virus.

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Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, Center for Biodefense & Emerging Infectious Diseases, Institute for Human Infections & Immunity, & Galveston National Laboratory, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609, USA.


The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America in 1999 as a cause of severe neurological disease in humans, horses and birds stimulated development of vaccines for human and veterinary use, as well as polyclonal/monoclonal antibodies and other immunomodulating compounds for use as therapeutics. Although disease incidence in North America has declined since the peak epidemics in 2002-2003, the virus has continued to be annually transmitted in the Americas and to cause periodic epidemics in Europe and the Middle East. Continued transmission of the virus with human and animal disease suggests that vaccines and therapeutics for the prevention and treatment of WNV disease could be of great benefit. This article focuses on progress in development and evaluation of vaccines and immunotherapeutics for the prevention and treatment of WNV disease in humans and animals.

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