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Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 Apr;77(7):2292-302. doi: 10.1128/AEM.01861-10. Epub 2011 Feb 11.

Temperature adaptation markedly determines evolution within the genus Saccharomyces.

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1
Departament de Bioquimica i Biotecnologia, Facultat de Enologia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain.

Abstract

The present study uses a mathematical-empirical approach to estimate the cardinal growth temperature parameters (T(min), the temperature below which growth is no longer observed; T(opt), the temperature at which the μ(max) equals its optimal value; μ(opt), the optimal value of μ(max); and T(max), the temperature above which no growth occurs) of 27 yeast strains belonging to different Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces species. S. cerevisiae was the yeast best adapted to grow at high temperatures within the Saccharomyces genus, with the highest optimum (32.3°C) and maximum (45.4°C) growth temperatures. On the other hand, S. kudriavzevii and S. bayanus var. uvarum showed the lowest optimum (23.6 and 26.2°C) and maximum (36.8 and 38.4°C) growth temperatures, respectively, confirming that both species are more psychrophilic than S. cerevisiae. The remaining Saccharomyces species (S. paradoxus, S. mikatae, S. arboricolus, and S. cariocanus) showed intermediate responses. With respect to the minimum temperature which supported growth, this parameter ranged from 1.3 (S. cariocanus) to 4.3°C (S. kudriavzevii). We also tested whether these physiological traits were correlated with the phylogeny, which was accomplished by means of a statistical orthogram method. The analysis suggested that the most important shift in the adaptation to grow at higher temperatures occurred in the Saccharomyces genus after the divergence of the S. arboricolus, S. mikatae, S. cariocanus, S. paradoxus, and S. cerevisiae lineages from the S. kudriavzevii and S. bayanus var. uvarum lineages. Finally, our mathematical models suggest that temperature may also play an important role in the imposition of S. cerevisiae versus non-Saccharomyces species during wine fermentation.

PMID:
21317255
PMCID:
PMC3067424
DOI:
10.1128/AEM.01861-10
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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