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Pak J Biol Sci. 2010 Oct 1;13(19):927-36.

The histopathalogical effects of retinoic acid on the tissues.

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Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.


The aim of this study is to sum up the important information that has emerged from the last 10 years of experimental investigations over the effects of retinoic acid (RA) on embryonic structure and adult tissues. Administration of exogenous RA can affect the connective tissues including enhancement of myeloid compartment and suppression of erythroid cells and conversion of hematopoietic stem cells to erythroid progenitors. Also, it is able to induce osteogenic differentiation of stem cells derived from adipose tissues and etc. Examining the neural tissue highlighted that disruption of RA signaling in the adult leads to degeneration of motor neurons and development of some diseases. In vitro administration of All-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA) increased dendritic growth and synaptophysin puncta intensity and increased expressions of neuronal nuclei, neuron specific enolase, synaptophysin. RA also promotes expression of a marker of mature astrocytes. On muscular tissue, it can inhibit proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) while promoting differentiation of SMC in vitro instead. The ATRA stimulates skeletal myogenesis while inhibiting cardiomyogenesis and hypertrophy and proliferation of cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts. In addition, differences in levels of embryonic RA may contribute to variability in great artery anomalies. In epithelial tissue, the squamous epithelium exposed to ATRA showed the columnar differentiation independent to proliferation. Also RA seems able to rescue the regeneration process of injured gut and revealing a better wound healing of the intestine undergone intra-operative radiotherapy. It can interrupt the process of progressive fibrosis, enhancements of the langerhans islets, exocrine pancreas, modulate the health of the mammary glands and repairs the lung cell. Thus, differences in levels of endogenous RA in embryonic and adult tissues may contribute to anomalies and pathogenesis of disease, furthermore RA has paradoxical effects on the parts forming the connective and muscles tissue in equal conditions.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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