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Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011 May;31(5):1139-40. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.110.222158. Epub 2011 Feb 10.

Evidence that chromium modulates cellular cholesterol homeostasis and ABCA1 functionality impaired by hyperinsulinemia--brief report.

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1
Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, VanNuys Medical Science Bldg, Rm 308A, Indianapolis, IN 46260, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Trivalent chromium (Cr3+) is an essential micronutrient. Findings since the 1950s suggest that Cr3+ might benefit cholesterol homeostasis. Here we present mechanistic evidence in support of this role of Cr3+.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol generation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which are rendered ineffective by the hyperinsulinemia that is known to accompany disorders of lipid metabolism, was corrected by Cr3+. Mechanistically, Cr3+ reversed hyperinsulinemia-induced cellular cholesterol accrual and associated defects in cholesterol transporter ATP-binding cassette transporter-A1 trafficking and apolipoprotein A1-mediated cholesterol efflux. Moreover, direct activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, which is known to be activated by Cr3+, or inhibition of hexosamine biosynthesis pathway activity, which is known to be elevated by hyperinsulinemia, mimics Cr3+ action.

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings suggest a mechanism of Cr3+ action that fits with long-standing claims of its role in cholesterol homeostasis. Furthermore, these data imply a mechanistic basis for the coexistence of dyslipidemia with hyperinsulinemia.

PMID:
21311039
PMCID:
PMC3081388
DOI:
10.1161/ATVBAHA.110.222158
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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