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Plant J. 2011 Jun;66(5):745-58. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2011.04535.x. Epub 2011 Mar 21.

Alternative targeting of Arabidopsis plastidic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase G6PD1 involves cysteine-dependent interaction with G6PD4 in the cytosol.

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Institut für Biologie und Biotechnologie der Pflanzen, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Schlossgarten 3, 48149 Münster, Germany.


Arabidopsis peroxisomes contain an incomplete oxidative pentose-phosphate pathway (OPPP), consisting of 6-phosphogluconolactonase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase isoforms with peroxisomal targeting signals (PTS). To start the pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is required; however, G6PD isoforms with obvious C-terminal PTS1 or N-terminal PTS2 motifs are lacking. We used fluorescent reporter fusions to explore possibly hidden peroxisomal targeting information. Among the six Arabidopsis G6PD isoforms only plastid-predicted G6PD1 with free C-terminal end localized to peroxisomes. Detailed analyses identified SKY as an internal PTS1-like signal; however, in a medial G6PD1 reporter fusion with free N- and C-terminal ends this cryptic information was overruled by the transit peptide. Yeast two-hybrid analyses revealed selective protein-protein interactions of G6PD1 with catalytically inactive G6PD4, and of both G6PD isoforms with plastid-destined thioredoxin m2 (Trx(m2) ). Serine replacement of redox-sensitive cysteines conserved in G6PD4 abolished the G6PD4-G6PD1 interaction, albeit analogous changes in G6PD1 did not. In planta bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) demonstrated that the G6PD4-G6PD1 interaction results in peroxisomal import. BiFC also confirmed the interaction of Trx(m2) with G6PD4 (or G6PD1) in plastids, but co-expression analyses revealed Trx(m2) -mediated retention of medial G6PD4 (but not G6PD1) reporter fusions in the cytosol that was stabilized by CxxC¹¹³S exchange in Trx(m2) . Based on preliminary findings with plastid-predicted rice G6PD isoforms, we dismiss Arabidopsis G6PD4 as non-functional. G6PD4 orthologs (new P0 class) apparently evolved to become cytosolic redox switches that confer thioredoxin-relayed alternative targeting to peroxisomes.

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