Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Hum Mutat. 2011 Apr;32(4):445-55. doi: 10.1002/humu.21462. Epub 2011 Mar 1.

New insights into the pathogenesis of autosomal-dominant cutis laxa with report of five ELN mutations.

Author information

1
Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Abstract

Autosomal dominant cutis laxa (ADCL) is characterized by a typical facial appearance and generalized loose skin folds, occasionally associated with aortic root dilatation and emphysema. We sequenced exons 28-34 of the ELN gene in five probands with ADCL features and found five de novo heterozygous mutations: c.2296_2299dupGCAG (CL-1), c.2333delC (CL-2), c.2137delG (CL-3), c.2262delA (monozygotic twin CL-4 and CL-5), and c.2124del25 (CL-6). Four probands (CL-1,-2,-3,-6) presented with progressive aortic root dilatation. CL-2 and CL-3 also had bicuspid aortic valves. CL-2 presented with severe emphysema. Electron microscopy revealed elastic fiber fragmentation and diminished dermal elastin deposition. RT-PCR studies showed stable mutant mRNA in all patients. Exon 32 skipping explains a milder phenotype in patients with exon 32 mutations. Mutant protein expression in fibroblast cultures impaired deposition of tropoelastin onto microfibril-containing fibers, and enhanced tropoelastin coacervation and globule formation leading to lower amounts of mature, insoluble elastin. Mutation-specific effects also included endoplasmic reticulum stress and increased apoptosis. Increased pSMAD2 staining in ADCL fibroblasts indicated enhanced transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling. We conclude that ADCL is a systemic disease with cardiovascular and pulmonary complications, associated with increased TGF-β signaling and mutation-specific differences in endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis.

PMID:
21309044
PMCID:
PMC3383654
DOI:
10.1002/humu.21462
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Wiley Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center