Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Prostate. 2011 Sep;71(12):1276-86. doi: 10.1002/pros.21345. Epub 2011 Feb 9.

G-protein alpha-s and -12 subunits are involved in androgen-stimulated PI3K activation and androgen receptor transactivation in prostate cancer cells.

Author information

Department of Urology, the Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang, Guangdong, China.



The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates androgenic hormone action in cells. We recently demonstrated the involvement of phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI3K) p110beta in AR transactivation and gene expression. In this study, we determined the upstream signals that lead to PI3K/p110beta activation and AR transactivation after androgen stimulation.


Human prostate cancer LAPC-4 and 22Rv1 cell lines were used for the experiments. AR transactivation was assessed using an androgen responsive element-driven luciferase (ARE-LUC) assay. Cell proliferation was examined using BrdU incorporation and MTT assays. Target genes were silenced using small interfering RNA (siRNA) approach. Gene expression was evaluated at the mRNA level (real-time RT-PCR) and protein level (Western blot). PI3K kinase activities were measured using immunoprecipitation-based in vitro kinase assay. The AR-DNA-binding activity was determined using chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay.


First, at the cellular plasma membrane, disrupting the integrity of caveolae microdomain with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (M-β-CD) abolished androgen-induced AR transactivation and gene expression. Then, knocking down caveolae structural proteins caveolin-1 or -2 with the gene-specific siRNAs significantly reduced androgen-induced AR transactivation. Next, silencing Gα(s) and Gα(12) genes but not other G-proteins blocked androgen-induced AR transactivation and cell proliferation. Consistently, overexpression of Gα(s) or Gα(12) active mutants enhanced androgen-induced AR transactivation, of which Gα(s) active mutant sensitized the AR to castration-level of androgen (R1881). Most interestingly, knocking down Gα(s) but not Gα(12) subunit significantly suppressed androgen-stimulated PI3K p110beta activation. However, ChIP analysis revealed that both Gα(s) or Gα(12) subunits are involved in androgen-induced AR interaction with the AR target gene PSA promoter region.


These data suggest that caveolae-associated G-protein alpha subunits are involved in AR transactivation by modulating the activities of different PI3K isoforms.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center