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Prostate. 2011 Sep;71(12):1276-86. doi: 10.1002/pros.21345. Epub 2011 Feb 9.

G-protein alpha-s and -12 subunits are involved in androgen-stimulated PI3K activation and androgen receptor transactivation in prostate cancer cells.

Author information

1
Department of Urology, the Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang, Guangdong, China.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates androgenic hormone action in cells. We recently demonstrated the involvement of phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI3K) p110beta in AR transactivation and gene expression. In this study, we determined the upstream signals that lead to PI3K/p110beta activation and AR transactivation after androgen stimulation.

METHODS:

Human prostate cancer LAPC-4 and 22Rv1 cell lines were used for the experiments. AR transactivation was assessed using an androgen responsive element-driven luciferase (ARE-LUC) assay. Cell proliferation was examined using BrdU incorporation and MTT assays. Target genes were silenced using small interfering RNA (siRNA) approach. Gene expression was evaluated at the mRNA level (real-time RT-PCR) and protein level (Western blot). PI3K kinase activities were measured using immunoprecipitation-based in vitro kinase assay. The AR-DNA-binding activity was determined using chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay.

RESULTS:

First, at the cellular plasma membrane, disrupting the integrity of caveolae microdomain with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (M-β-CD) abolished androgen-induced AR transactivation and gene expression. Then, knocking down caveolae structural proteins caveolin-1 or -2 with the gene-specific siRNAs significantly reduced androgen-induced AR transactivation. Next, silencing Gα(s) and Gα(12) genes but not other G-proteins blocked androgen-induced AR transactivation and cell proliferation. Consistently, overexpression of Gα(s) or Gα(12) active mutants enhanced androgen-induced AR transactivation, of which Gα(s) active mutant sensitized the AR to castration-level of androgen (R1881). Most interestingly, knocking down Gα(s) but not Gα(12) subunit significantly suppressed androgen-stimulated PI3K p110beta activation. However, ChIP analysis revealed that both Gα(s) or Gα(12) subunits are involved in androgen-induced AR interaction with the AR target gene PSA promoter region.

CONCLUSION:

These data suggest that caveolae-associated G-protein alpha subunits are involved in AR transactivation by modulating the activities of different PI3K isoforms.

PMID:
21308712
PMCID:
PMC3143312
DOI:
10.1002/pros.21345
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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