Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Genes Immun. 2011 Jul;12(5):378-89. doi: 10.1038/gene.2011.7. Epub 2011 Feb 10.

Contribution of transcript stability to a conserved procyanidin-induced cytokine response in γδ T cells.

Author information

Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59718, USA.


γδ T cells function in innate and adaptive immunity and are primed for secondary responses by procyanidin components of unripe apple peel (APP). In this study, we investigate the effects of APP and purified procyanidins on γδ T-cell gene expression. A microarray analysis was performed on bovine γδ T cells treated with APP; increases in transcripts encoding granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-8 and IL-17, but not markers of TCR stimulation such as IFNγ, were observed. Key responses were confirmed in human, mouse and bovine cells by reverse transcription-PCR and/or ELISA, indicating a conserved response to procyanidins. In vivo relevance of the cytokine response was shown in mice following intraperitoneal injection of APP, which induced production of CXCL1/KC and resulted in neutrophil influx to the blood and peritoneum. In the human T-cell line, MOLT-14, GM-CSF and IL-8 transcripts were increased and stabilized in cells treated with crude APP or purified procyanidins. The ERK1/2 MAPK pathway was activated in APP-treated cells, and necessary for transcript stabilization. Our data describe a unique γδ T-cell inflammatory response during procyanidin treatment and suggest that transcript stability mechanisms could account, at least in part, for the priming phenotype.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center