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Semin Thromb Hemost. 2011 Feb;37(1):49-57.

Antiphospholipid syndrome: endocrinologic manifestations and organ involvement.

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Division of Rheumatology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.


Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by thrombotic tendency that affects most organ systems in the human body. In this report, we present a review of the endocrinologic manifestations associated with APS by evaluating the medical literature from 1968 to 2009 using MEDLINE and these keywords: APS, antiphospholipid syndrome, antiphospholipid antibodies, anticardiolipin antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, anti β-2 glycoprotein I, pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, parathyroid, ovary, testes, diabetes mellitus, and diabetes insipidus. Adrenal insufficiency was found to be the most common endocrine manifestation associated with APS. Autoimmune thyroid disease was associated with increased titers of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) without any APS clinical manifestations. In addition, hypopituitarism and Sheehan syndrome are increasingly being reported in association with aPL. Data regarding the prevalence and significance of aPL in diabetic patients remains uncertain. Finally, only a few cases of ovarian and testicular derangements have been reported. APS should be considered in any patient with adrenal insufficiency even in the absence of other thrombotic manifestations. It is also advisable to assess aPL in the sera of patients presenting with pituitary insufficiency. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between aPL and thyroid disorders and diabetes mellitus.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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