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Plant Cell Rep. 2011 Jun;30(6):1099-106. doi: 10.1007/s00299-011-1017-y. Epub 2011 Feb 9.

Gynogenesis in gentians (Gentiana triflora, G. scabra): production of haploids and doubled haploids.

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Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8550, Japan.


Gynogenesis was investigated on gentian (Gentiana triflora, G. scabra and their hybrids), which is an important ornamental flower. When unfertilized ovules were cultured in 1/2 NLN medium containing a high concentration of sucrose (100 g/l), embryo-like structures (ELS) were induced. Although genotypic variation was observed in ELS induction, all four genotypes produced ELSs ranging from 0.93 to 0.04 ELSs per flower bud. The ovules collected from flower buds of later stages (just before anthesis or flower anthesis) tended to exhibit higher response. The dark culture condition produced more than four times as many ELSs than in 16-h light condition. A significant number of plantlets were directly regenerated from ELSs on MS regeneration medium. The ploidy levels of 179 regenerated plants were determined by flow cytometry, revealing that the majority of them were diploid (55.9%) and haploid (31.3%). When a total of 54 diploid plants were examined by molecular genetic markers, 52 (96.3%) were considered as doubled haploids (DHs). This is the first report showing successful gynogenesis in gentian. The production of haploids and DHs by unfertilized ovule culture opens a novel prospect in gentian F1 hybrid breeding.

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